Attachment I - Jeffrey- Thomas: Maehr
Federal Reserve: Financial Fraud
Federal Reserve Constructive Fraud, using IRS as a private collection agency of money toward interest on the national debt, being paid to private bankers, and as part of the financial fraud upon all Americans (See Attachment N) who are being used as collateral toward the national debt and government spending.
ARTICLE 1, SECTION 8 OF THE CONSTITUTION STATES THAT CONGRESS SHALL HAVE THE POWER TO COIN (CREATE) MONEY AND REGULATE THE VALUE THEREOF.
IN 1935 THE SUPREME COURT RULED THAT CONGRESS CANNOT CONSTITUTIONALLY
DELEGATE ITS POWER TO ANOTHER GROUP.
Case Information, A. L. A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, No. 854,
"Congress is not permitted by the Constitution to abdicate, or to transfer to others, the essential legislative functions with which it is vested. Art. I, 1; Art. I, 8, par. 18. Panama Refining Co. v. Ryan, 293 U.S. 388. P. 529 ."
The printing of Federal Reserve Notes, legally not lawful money, has been in the hands of the Federal private Reserve since 1913.
"The Federal Reserve Banks are privately owned, locally controlled corporations" [Lewis vs. U.S., 680 F.2d 1239, 1241](1982)
THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANK IS A PRIVATE COMPANY. (Just look in the phone book under government agencies and you will NOT find the Federal Reserve there. Look, however, in the white pages, and you will find it listed as a business, a private corporation.)
The FED began with approximately 300 people or banks that became owners (stockholders purchasing stock at $100 per share - the stock is not publicly traded) in the Federal Reserve Banking System. They make up an international banking cartel of wealth beyond comparison. The FED banking system collects billions of dollars in interest annually and distributes the profits to its shareholders. The Congress illegally gave the FED the right to print money (through the Treasury) at no interest to the FED.
The process goes like this:
The government wants to borrow money so it can spend it on the countless unconstitutional programs it creates. It requests the money from the FED, which authorizes the printing of the said amount. The treasury prints the money from nothing, each bill costing the Federal Reserve private system 2.6 cents each, whether a $1 or a $100 bill, and "loans" it back to us through banks, and charges interest on this created from nothing currency. The FED also buys Government debt with money printed on a printing press, and charges U.S. taxpayers interest on all this spending. Many Congressmen and Presidents say this is fraud.
In other words, this is financial fraud of immense proportions where "money" is counterfeited, then given to us as lawful money which we are asked to pay our debt with... on top of which we are also charged interest, adding every minute to the national debt, and wealth into the pockets of wealthy bankers and families... all through constructive fraud.
(1) "The Federal Reserve Bank,"by H.S. Kenan, published by The Noontide Press
(2) National Committee to Repeal the Federal Reserve Act, P.O. Box 156, Westmont, IL 60559
(3) "The New World Order, Saving America,"P.O. Box 1205, Middleburg, FL 32050-1205
(4) "The Most Secret Science,"Betsy Ross Press, P.O. Box 986, Ft. Collins, CO 80522 (Book) States attempt to abolish the FED.
(5) $16 trillion in government and private debt, much of which the FED printed and collected interest on (Reference 3)
(6) "En Route to Global Occupation" by Gary H. Kah
(7) "Repeal the Federal Reserve Banks" by Rev. Casimir Frank Gierut.
On May 23, 1933, Congressman, Louis T. McFadden, brought formal charges against the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank system, The Comptroller of the Currency and the Secretary of United States Treasury for numerous criminal acts, including but not limited to, conspiracy, fraud, unlawful conversion, and treason. The petition for Articles of Impeachment was thereafter referred to the Judiciary Committee and has yet to be acted on.
Excerpt of speech:
"Chairman, we have in this Country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Banks, hereinafter called the Fed. The Fed has cheated the Government of these United States and the people of the United States out of enough money to pay the Nation's debt. The depredations and iniquities of the Fed has cost enough money to pay the National debt several times over. "
"This evil institution has impoverished and ruined the people of these United States, has bankrupted itself, and has practically bankrupted our Government. It has done this through the defects of the law under which it operates, through the maladministration of that law by the Fed and through the corrupt practices of the moneyed vultures who control it."
The following State Case Law supports this fact: (Copyright http://home.hiwaay.net/~becraft/MONEYbrief.html)
Case law on Illegal creation of money:
I. ALABAMA: Carter and Carter v. Penn, 4 Ala. 140, 141 (1842):
"But the notes of the Banks which are not redeemable in coin, on demand, cannot, with any propriety be regarded as such; in fact, the best Bank paper passes as money by consent only, and it cannot be otherwise so long as the inhibition of the Federal Constitution upon the rights of the States to dispense with gold and silver coin as the only lawful tender continues in force."
II. ARKANSAS: Dillard v. Evans, 4 Ark. 175, 177 (1842):
"Bank issues are not, in the constitutional sense of the term, lawful money or legal coin. Gold and silver alone are a legal tender in payment of debts; and the only true constitutional currency known to the laws." Bone v. Torry, 16 Ark. 83, 87 (1855):
"The judgment was for dollars, and the payment, so far as the facts are before us, could only have been made in gold or silver, the constitutional coin."
III. CONNECTICUT: Foquet v. Hoadley, 3 Conn. 534, 536 (1821):
"A promissory note, payable in money, cannot be discharged, by the act of the debtor, without the cooperation of the creditor, unless in gold and silver coin. Const. U.S. art. 1 sec. 10. Bank notes are not a legal tender, if the creditor objects to receive them."
IV. INDIANA: State v. Beackmo, 8 Blackf. 246 (Ind. 1846):
"But the constitution here interposes, and declares that a 'just compensation' shall be made for the property so appropriated that the injured party may have his damages assessed by a jury of the country; and it will not be disputed that when they are so assessed, they become a 'debt' in the constitutional sense of the word, and being so, the constitution of the United States restrains the state from enforcing their payment in any thing but gold and silver," 8 Blackf., at 249-50.
"And we think we hazard nothing in saying, that a law authorizing compulsory payment for real estate or damage thereto, when appropriated by the State or its authority, in any thing but gold and silver, would not make adequate provision for a just compensation * * * Nothing short of gold and silver, the value of which is comparatively certain and changeless, and with which, better than with any thing else, can at any time be commanded what the possessor may desire, can adequately compensate a proprietor for what he is compelled to surrender to the public use," 8 Blackf., at 251.
Prather v. State Bank, 3 Ind. 356 (1852):
"No clerk, nor sheriff, nor constable, as such, has a right, under the constitution and law, to receive payment of a judgment in anything but the legal currency of the country. Griffin v. Thompson, 2 How. 244."
V. KENTUCKY: McChord v. Ford, 19 Ky. 166, 167 (1826):
"But as bank notes are not money, it also follows that this note cannot intend bank notes, but gold or silver."
Sinclair v. Piercy, 28 Ky. 63, 64 (1830):
"The result from an examination of all the cases is, that money in its strict legal sense, means gold or silver coin, and that an obligation for money alone can not be satisfied with anything else."
Pryor v. Commonwealth, 32 Ky. 298 (1834):
"Yet, that its true technical import is lawful money of the United States, in other words, gold or silver coin, and when used in judicial proceedings it is always to be taken in this technical sense."
VI. MISSISSIPPI: Gasquet v. Warren, 10 Miss. 514, 517 (1844):
"It means that which in fact and law is money, which is gold or silver coin. This in law is money and nothing else is."
VII. MISSOURI: Bailey v. Gentry, 1 Mo. 164 (1822):
"The 1st clause of the 10th section of the 1st article of the Constitution of the United States, provides that 'No State shall make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts * * * "
"Construing the Constitution, then, to prohibit the States from passing laws, the effect of which would be to induce the creditor to receive something else than gold and silver coin in payment of the debt due him, in order to avoid an inconvenience that would result on his failure to do so, we are lead to the conclusion that the act under consideration is repugnant to the provisions of the Constitution of the United States last referred to," 1 Mo., at 172-73.
Cockrill v. Kirkpatrick, 9 Mo. 697, 701 (1846):
"These terms import either, first, gold or silver coin, which is constitutional currency of the United States, the 'tender money' of the several states of the Union. * * * "
"But if the note was 'payable in the current money of Missouri,' as the obligor subsequently stated, then all necessity for construction is absolutely excluded, for the terms explain themselves, and can only mean 'tender money,' gold or silver coin."
VIII. PENNSYLVANIA: Shelby v. Boyd, 3 Yeats (Pa.) 321 (1801):
"By the 10th section of the 1st article of the constitution of the United States, no state shall emit bills of credit, or make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts," 3 Yeats, at 322.
"If the agreement had respected the continental bills of credit, and no legal tender had been pleaded, the court would not suffer the paper emitted by Congress to be paid into court, but only its specie value when the agreement was entered into * * * It does not appear to us, that the bills of credit offered to be paid into court, are a legal tender, and therefore we cannot admit them to be brought into court," 3 Yeats, at 323.
Gray v. Donahoe, 4 Watts (Pa.) 400 (1835): "No principle is better established nor more necessary to be maintained than that bank notes are not money in the legal sense of the word. * * * Coins struck at the Mint or authorized by act of Congress are alone lawful money. They possess a fixed and permanent value or, at least as nearly so as human affairs admit of. Bank notes are merely promissory notes for the payment of money; ordinarily, it is true, convertible into coin on demand at the bank where they are issued."
IX. SOUTH CAROLINA: Clarin v. Nesbitt, 2 Nott. and McC. (11 S.C.) 519 (1820):
"If Congress can create a legal tender, it must be by virtue of the 'power to coin money,' for no where in the constitution is the power to make a legal tender expressly given to them, nor is there any other power directly given, from which the power to make a legal tender can be incidentally deduced," 2 Nott. and McC., at 520.
"At common law, only gold and silver were a legal tender. * * * In this State, where the common law has been expressly adopted, anterior to all legislative and constitutional provisions on the subject, gold and silver were the only legal tenders," 2 Nott. and McC., at 521.
"From the passage of this act to the adoption of the constitution of the United States, the only legal tenders in this State were gold and silver, and those were so by virtue of the common law. Prior to the adoption of the constitution of the United States, the States, respectively, possessed and exercised jurisdiction over the 'legal tender,'" 2 Nott. and McC., at 522.
"If Congress did not possess the power of creating a legal tender under the confederation, they do not possess the power under the constitution, for the grant in both instruments is the same, 'to coin money.' The States have been limited in their exercise of power over the legal tender to gold and silver, but it does not follow, because power has been taken from the States, it has been given to Congress," 2 Nott. and McC., at 522-23.
"They have further said, that nothing but gold and silver coin shall be a legal tender for the payment of debts. The language of the 10th sec. of the 1st article, is, 'no State shall make any thing but gold and silver coin a legal tender in the payment of debts.' The language of the 5th clause of the 8th sec. of the 1st Article, is, 'congress shall have power to coin money, and regulate the value thereof.' Construe the two sections together, and the constitution appears to intend to limit the power of the States over the legal tender, to gold and silver, and to give to congress the power of coining gold and silver. This construction is further supported by the two following considerations:
1. One of the great objects which led to the adoption of the constitution, was the annihilation of a spurious currency, which had for years afflicted the people of this country. Give to congress the power of making legal tender, and you but change the hand from which the affliction is to proceed; so construe the constitution as to restrict the legal tender to gold and silver, and one of the great objects for which it was ordained, is accomplished.
2. The constitution, no where gives to congress any control over contracts. It is indeed scrupulously avoided. If, however, they derive the power of making a legal tender from the power of coining money, they indirectly obtain that which was intended to be withheld," 2 Nott. and McC., at 523-24.
Lange v. Kohne, 1 McCord (12 S.C. Law) 115, 116 (1821):
"The note in question, however, is not payable in money, but in paper medium. That paper medium is not money, appears from the 8th and 10th sections of the Constitution of the United States, which declare that Congress shall coin money; and that no state shall coin money, emit bills of credit, or make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts."
X. TENNESSEE: Townsend v. Townsend, 7 Tenn. 1 (1821):
"First, then, let us take into consideration Art. 1, section 10, of the Constitution of the United States: 'No State shall * * * emit bills of credit or make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts. * * * ' The first two sentences respect tender laws and paper money; the construction to be put on them should repress and prevent the evils they were intended to obviate; and what these are, must be understood by the actual evils which paper money and tender laws produced in the time of the colonial governments," 7 Tenn., at 2-3.
"One cause of depreciation is that the paper could not be remitted to foreign countries. No matter how small the emission may be, it is not equal to gold and silver. He who exchanges it for gold and silver must give a greater quantity of paper," 7 Tenn., at 5.
"With respect to the disorders produced by paper money and tender laws, both theory and experience present them to view. Who will be so imprudent as to give credit to the citizens of a State that makes paper money a tender, and where he can be told, take for a gold and silver debt depreciated paper, depreciating still more in the moment it is paid? Who would trust the value of his property to the citizens of another State or of his own State, who can be protected by law against the just demands of creditors by forcing them to receive depreciated paper, or to be delayed of payment from year to year until the Legislature will not longer interfere?" 7 Tenn., at 6.
"One of the most powerful remedies was the tenth clause of the first article, and particularly the two sentences which we are now considering. They operated most efficaciously. The new course of thinking, which had been inspired by the adoption of a constitution that was understood to prohibit all laws for the emission of paper money, and for the making anything a tender but gold and silver, restored the confidence which was so essential to the internal prosperity of nations," 7 Tenn., at 8.
"The framers of the Federal Constitution believed it to be of indispensable importance not to leave this power any longer in the hands of the State Legislatures. Experience had demonstrated the baneful effects of its exercise. The known disposition of man excluded the hope that it would not be used for the same pernicious purposes in future. Under the smart of this experience, such were the feelings of the American people at the time, still suffering under repeated emissions of depreciated paper, that not a dissenting voice was raised against the clause before us. No state required it to be expunged, nor did any state propose an amendment. It was universally received without an exception, and the effects of the clauses themselves were miraculous. Public and private confidence took deep root. The people of America were reinstated in the admiration of the world. The precious metals flowed in upon them. Paper money suddenly stopped in its career of depreciation and took a stand from which it never departed; industry revived universally; and to us in America was given a notable proof, that whenever a nation is virtuous and honest it will prosper both in wealth and character; and that whenever a contrary course is pursued, such is the wise decree of providence, that prosperity of either kind will not long follow in her train," 7 Tenn., at 9.
Lowry v. McGhee and McDermott, 16 Tenn. 242 (1835):
"By the Constitution of the United States nothing can be a tender in payment of debt but gold and silver coin," 16 Tenn., at 244.
"The answer to this argument is that the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law, and that no law can be valid which, in violation of that instrument, shall attempt to make anything but gold and silver coin a tender," 16 Tenn., at 245.
"The constitution of the United States (art. 1, sec. 10) prohibits any state making 'anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts;" 16 Tenn., at 246.
"This provision was inserted to prevent the existence of a spurious and worthless currency, and is of positive and paramount obligation," 16 Tenn., at 246-47.
XI. TEXAS: Ogden v. Slade, 1 Tex. 13, 14 (1846):
"The note calls for four hundred dollars, lawful funds of the United States. What is the plain meaning of 'lawful funds?' Gold and silver is the only lawful tender in the United States. It must therefore mean payment in gold or silver. By equivalent, the parties must have meant such paper currency as passed at par with gold and silver."
XII. VERMONT: Wainright v. Webster, 11 Ver. 576 (1839):
"No state is authorized to coin money, or pass any law whereby anything but gold and silver shall be made a legal tender in payment of debt. * * * This conventional understanding that bank bills are to pass as money is founded upon the solvency of the bank and upon the supposition that the bills are equivalent in value to specie and are, at any time, convertible into specie at the option of the holder. Upon no other ground do bank bills, by common consent, pass as money." 11 Ver., at 580.
"When, therefore, a bank stops payment, the bills thereof cease, by this conventional arrangement, to be the representative of money," 11 Ver., at 581.
(End independent Copyright)
Case Law in First National Bank vs. Jerome Daly clearly shows that Federal Reserve Notes are illegal and unconstitutional in nature, and the creation of "credit," (with no actual real money consideration... gold and silver) which takes place with most every loan and in every bank across the country, is encompassed by this decision. Financial fraud to the extreme.
The scam is the greatest in the world, just above the IRS, because this system affects International interests as well.
Further proof is available through the book: "The Creature from Jekyll Island," By G. Edward Griffin, documenting these facts, and is placed into public evidence, along with the above sources.
I reserve all rights under all organic laws for being forced to pay a debt WITH a debt, which is illegal. I demand return of all assets of DEBTOR, JEFFREY THOMAS MAEHR(C), payable in my sovereign name, Jeffrey- Thomas: Maehr, and as secured party to DEBTOR, JEFFREY THOMAS MAEHR(C), or any derivation of same, claim all assets to be paid in according to affidavit and under HJR 192.
I present this as further evidence of crimes being committed on a daily basis, and require responsible parties to act on this criminal knowledge by commencing a Grand Jury to publicly investigate this or be personally liable.
Jeffrey- Thomas: Maehr, Copyright (C) 2006, All rights reserved.